This technique is used to detect abnormal cell changes in the cervix, we can make diagnosis of low-grade SIL (is the equivalent of mild cervical dysplasia or CIN 1), high-grade SIL (is the equivalent to a moderate or severe dysplasia of the cervix or CIN 2 and CIN 3, respectively), of invasive cervical cancer or different causes of cervix inflammation.
High-grade SIL and low-grade SIL are caused Human Papillomavirus, or HPV. L-SIL lesions undertake one third of the epithelium. In the case of H-SIL it undertakes two-thirds or three-thirds of the epithelium.
With this technique it is possible to see abnormal images of the uterine cervix. That permits us to perform a biopsy for its pathological study.
DNA Test (Polymerase Reaction Chain) or Hybrid Capture
Using molecular pathology techniques, the HPV test, unlike the pap smear, allows us to have a precise diagnosis of the Human Papillomavirus. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a painless technique which involves the extraction of cellular material as it is done in a pap smear but, unlike this, it has a sensitivity of 100% in the cervix. In other words, there is no possibility of false negatives if the extraction is correctly performed. This molecular biology technique, which we prefer and recommend, also gives us the possibility to find out which type of HPV the patient actually has. The importance of this lies in the fact that there are tumor viruses, in other words, viruses related to cancer such as: HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68, among others. There are other viruses related to benign warts which may result unsightly or contagious. This technique is also used in other genital areas such as the vagina, vulva, anus, penis or other parts of the body, which cannot be contagious, such as the mouth or areas of the skin near the genitals and different organs where the HPV infections are less frequent.
Another currently used technique for detection of the HPV is the “hybrid-capture” test which gives us the possibility to obtain information about the human papillomaviruses connected to genital infection or cervix cancer as well as some benign viruses related to common warts. Unlike PCR, this technique does not report on the infectious type of viruses and it is only sensitive to the most frequently found viruses.
The “hybrid-capture” detects HPV viruses which are often found in the genitals. These one are classified in: Group I: 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 53 and 54 called “low-risk” HPV types and which are not related to cancer; and Group II viruses, also called of “high-risk”: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 related cancer.
Triage: PCR, Pap smear, Colposcopy.
In our Medical Center with perform this three techniques as a routine with the propose of reduce false negatives results.
Other diagnosis methods: